What Is Domain Name System And How DNS Works?

What Is Domain Name System And How DNS Works?

The Domain Name System (DNS) translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses.

Domain Name System automatically converts between the names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of web servers hosting those sites. Home networks use Domain Name System when accessing the internet but do not use it for managing the names of home computers.
What Is Domain Name System And How DNS Works?
What Is Domain Name System And How DNS Works?

How Domain Name System Works

Domain Name System is a client/server network communication systems: DNS clients send requests to and receive responses from DNS servers. Requests containing a name that results in an Internet Protocol address being returned from the server, are called forward DNS lookups

Requests containing an Internet Protocol address and resulting in a name, called reverse DNS lookups, are also supported. DNS implements a distributed database to store this name and last-known address information for all public hosts on the internet.

The DNS database resides on a hierarchy of specialized database servers. When clients like web browsers issue requests involving internet hostnames, a piece of software called the DNS resolver first contacts a Domain Name Server to determine the server's IP address. 

If the Domain Name Server doesn't contain the needed mapping, it will forward the request to a different DNS server at the next higher level in the hierarchy. After potentially several forwarding and delegation messages are sent within the DNS hierarchy, the IP address for the host eventually arrives at the resolver, that completes the request over Internet Protocol.

Domain Name System additionally includes support for caching requests and for redundancy. Most network operating systems support configuration of primary, secondary, and tertiary Domain Name Servers, each of which can service initial requests from clients.

Configure Domain Name System on Home Networks

Internet Service Providers maintain their DNS servers and use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol to configure their customer's networks automatically; Automatic DNS server assignment relieves households of the burden of DNS configuration. 

Home network administrators are not required to keep their ISPs settings, however. Some prefer to use one of the available public internet DNS services instead. Public DNS services offer better performance and reliability over what a typical ISP can reasonably offer.

Home broadband routers and other network gateway devices store primary, secondary, and tertiary DNS server IP addresses for the network and assign them to client devices as needed. 

Administrators can enter addresses manually or obtain them from the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Addresses can also be updated on a client device via its operating system configuration menus.

Issues with Domain Name System can be intermittent and difficult to troubleshoot given its geographically-distributed nature. Clients can still connect to their local network when the Domain Name Server is broken, but they cannot reach remote devices by their name. When the network settings of a client device show DNS server addresses of, it indicates a failure with DNS or with its configuration on the local network.
What Is Domain Name System And How DNS Works? What Is Domain Name System And How DNS Works? Reviewed by Technowap on June 11, 2019 Rating: 5

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